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【转载】英语语法-省略句
[来源:本站 | 作者: 加高 | 日期:2015年1月19日 | 浏览4983 次] 字体:[ ]

省略句学案

1. 简单句中的省略:

在对话中,交谈双方都知道谈论的对象,则可以省略句子的主语,省略主语和谓语的现象在交际用语中出现的很多。

(1)Looks like rain.

(2)Hope to hear from you soon.

(3)Sounds like a good idea.

(4)Beg your pardon.

(5)Feeling better today ?

(6)This way, please.

(7)—What does he want to eat ?

  —Some rice and vegetables.

(8)Anything I can do for you ?

(9)Sorry to hear that.

(10)Doesn’t matter.

(11)Terrible weather!

(12)Pity you couldn’t come.

2. 并列句中的省略:

在并列句中,相同的成分如主语,谓语,宾语等都可以省略:

(1)They learn French and we English.

(2)My father planned and built all these houses.

(3)John won the first race and Jimmy the second.

(4)Coral is not a plant but a variety of animal life.

3. 复合句中的省略:

定语从句:

(1)That’s the reason he is late for the conference.

(2)I don’t like the way he talks.

状语从句:

(1)If heated, water will boil.

(2)Tom was attacked by cramp while swimming across the river.

(3)We’ll go to help you if necessary.

(4)Had I time, I would come.

(5)I’ll go, should it be necessary.

(6)The captain can find a boat quicker than we can.

宾语从句:如果宾语从句中的谓语部分与主句的谓语部分或上文的谓语部分相同,可将从句部分的谓语省略。

(1)We will do what we can(do)to help you.

(2)—Is Mr. King in his office?

  —Sorry, I don’t know(whether he is in his office or not).

4. 动词不定式的省略:在动词不定式结构中,为了避免重复,常常省略不定式结构中的动词原形,只保留to。

(1)—Would you like to go with us ?

  —I’m glad to, but I have to finish my homework.

(2)Don’t tell me the name of the sailor if you don’t want to.

(3)—Have you ever been to the seaside?

  —No, we can’t afford to.

在used to, ought to, have to, would like/love to, wish to, be going to等结构中,常常省略to后面的动词原形。

(1)They do not visit their parents as much as they ought to.

(2)He doesn’t get up early as he used to.

(3)I’ll hand it in if I have to.

(4)—Would you like to come tonight ?

         —I’d love to.

Tell , warn , order , advise , ask等动词的宾语后面接动词不定式做宾语补足语时,可以省略to后面的动词原形。

(1)He wanted to swim across the river but I warned him not to.

(2)The boy wanted to play football in the street, but his mother told him not to.

 

 

省略在语言中特别是日常交际中一种普遍现象,了解常见的省略现象有助于我们准确理解句子的语境,在应试复习中要注意不定式结构的省略方式以及一些几乎形成了惯用法的省略句。同时应当在书面表达中学会恰当地使用省略,使写出的东西更加精练,干脆利索。

 

1. When first _____ to the market, these products enjoyed great success.

A. introducing                                          B. introduced

C. introduce                                       D. being introduced

分析:when引导的时间状语从句,如果从句的主语和主句的主语相同,且从句中谓语部分有be时,可以省略句中的主语和be,本句中when后面省略了these products were.

答案:B

2. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when _____ at the meeting by my boss.

A. questioning              B. having questioned     C. questioned       D. to be questioned

分析:本句when后面省略了I was                                                                         

答案:C

3. What surprised me was not what he said but _____ he said it.

A. the way             B. in the way that     C. in the way          D. the way which

分析:way表示:“方式”后面的定语从句由that / in which 引导或者省略关系代词,本句的定语从句he said it省略了关系代词。                                                                  

答案:A

4. —Susan, will you please go and empty that drawer?

  —______?

A. What for           B. What is it      C. How is it          D. How come

分析:第二个人不知道为什么要倒空抽屉,所以问为什么。What for(为什么)它的完整表达应是What are you going to use the empty drawer for ?                                             

答案:A

5. I’m looking forward as much to her return as she herself to _____ me.

A. have seen          B. seeing      C. meet        D. be met

分析:本句后半部分as she herself to _____ me是as she herself is looking forward to seeing me的省略。                                                                                                                     

答案:B

6. Who can you turn to in time of danger, if not ______?

A. ourselves           B. ours      C. we             D. us

分析: if not ______ 是if you don’t turn to us 的省略。                                            

答案:D

7. —Did you visit the museum last week ?

 —No, we _____, but we spent too much time shopping.

A. could have               B. could      C. must have        D. must

分析:句中we _____是we could have visited the museum last week.的省略形式。

答案:A

8. —Is your mother going to the supermarket ?

 —No, ______.

A. she doesn’t                      B. she’s cooking

C. she gets by bus                 D. to a tailor’s shop

分析:根据对话的语境,表明:我妈妈不打算去超市,而是去裁缝铺。to a tailor’s shop

是She is going to a tailor’s shop.的省略。                                                                

答案:D

9. —She may not be free today.

  —_____, we’ll have to put the meeting off.

A. If may              B. If not     C. If she may not    D. If she may not be free today

分析:答语的前半部分的完整回答应是:If she is not free today.                             

答案:B

10. She hurriedly left the room as if _____.

A. she angry          B. was angry      C. it was angry      D. angry

分析:when, if. Unless, while, though / although, as if/though引导的状语从句,如果从句的主语和主句的主语相同,且从句中谓语部分有be时,可以省略句中的主语和be。

答案:D

11. —_____ did you come to know the actor ?

   —He’s a close friend of my sister’s.

A. How          B. Why     C. Where         D. When

分析:根据答语He’s a close friend of my sister’s :他是我姐姐的一个好朋友。可以知道:对方在问:你是怎么认识那位男演员的。                                                                     

答案:A

12. —Can you give me a hand with this table? I want to move it.

—Sure. _____ are you going to put it?

A. Why          B. How      C. Where     D. When

分析:上文说:我想挪一下这张桌子。所以第二个人问:你想把它放在哪里?     

答案:C

13. — _____did you sleep last night ?

   —I sat up reading too late to fall asleep.

A. How long          B. How soon    C. How      D. When

分析:根据回答:I sat up reading too late to fall asleep.:我看书看太晚了以致于睡不着了。可以知道对方在问:你昨晚睡得怎么样?                                                                     

答案:C

 

练习

1. _____, I will help you with your work.

A. If I am possible      B. If it possible     C. If possible      D. Possible

2. —Do you follow me? —Yes, _____.

A. it is good          B. I will     C. perfectly          D. very good

3. —How are you getting on with your work ?

—Oh, I’m sorry. Things aren’t going so well as _____.

A. plans         B. planning     C. planned                     D. to plan

4. —Are you a teacher?

 —No, but I _____. I worked in a middle school for three years.

A. am            B. will      C. do              D. was

5. —How many poor counties will there be in our province by 2010?

 —There will be only a few, if _____.

A. much         B. some      C. any         D. many

6. —Why didn’t you come to Mike’s birthday party yesterday ?

 —Well, I_____, but I forgot it.

A. should                     B. must     C. should have        D. must have

7. Doctors have said that as many as 50% of patients don’t take medicine _____.

A. like directed                           B. to be directed

C. as directed                              D. so that directed

 

 

答案

1. C    If possible:如果有可能的话。已经成为了惯用语是If it is possible的省略。

2. C    perfectly  是I follow you perfectly的省略。

3. C    事情不象计划的那样好。完整句是:…as it was planned.

4. D    but I _____是But I was a teacher 的省略。

5. C  if _____的完整表达是:If there were any poor provinces….

6. C  I_____的完整表达是:I should have gone to Mike’s birthday party yesterday.

7. C  有50%的病人没有按医嘱吃药。完整表达是:as many as 50% of patients don’t take medicine as they are directed by the doctors.


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